Version 11 (modified by nhoyt, 6 years ago) (diff)



Structure/Content | Styles/Readability | Images | Links | Tables | Forms | Widgets/Scripts | Audio/Video | Keyboard Support | Site Navigation

Structure/Content Rules

1. First landmark heading H2

2. H1 should be in MAIN landmark

3. Headings must be descriptive


MC: Verify that each of the 0 heading elements describes the section that follows it.


4. Headings must have text content.

5. Headings nested in landmarks

6. Identify language changes


OLD: Elements with text content in a language different from the principal language of the page must use the LANG attribute to identify the language change using a valid IANA language code

NEW: Elements with text content in a different language from the principal language of the page must use the LANG attribute with a valid IANA language code to identify the change.

7. No more than one BANNER landmark.

8. No more than one CONTENTINFO landmark

9. Page must have MAIN landmark


OLD: Each page must contain at least one MAIN landmark

NEW: Each page must have at least one MAIN landmark that identifies its main content.


Verify the main landmark identifies the main content of the page


This rule combines two tests: The DEFINITION implies that the test is for presence of MAIN landmark. The ACTION (a manual check) asks the user to verify whether the main content is identified by a MAIN landmark.

ACTION (when MAIN landmark is missing)

OLD: V: Page does NOT contain a MAIN landmark

NEW: V: Add a MAIN landmark to the page.

10. Page must have NAVIGATION landmark


OLD: Add a NAVIGATION landmark(s) that identifies the group(s) of navigation links on a page

NEW: Add one or more NAVIGATION landmarks that identify groups of navigation links.

11. Page must use language code.

12. Page should have H1 element


OLD: Each page should contain at least one H1 element and each H1 element must have content

NEW: Each page should contain at least one H1 element, each of which must have content.

13. Page structure must be defined by landmarks


OLD: Landmarks provide a way to organize content of a page to users of assistive technology, similar to visual and interaction designers organize information for people using a graphical rendering of the content.

NEW: Landmarks provide a way to organize the content of a page for users of assistive technologies, analogous to the visual organization that consumers of a graphical rendering would experience.

14. Sibling headings must be unique


NEW: Same-level headings must be unique


OLD: Sibling heading elements accessible names must should be unique

NEW: Sibling heading elements must/should be unique.

NEW: The accessible name of each heading element must be unique relative to its siblings (headings of same level)

NEW: Heading elements at the same level must be unique. E.g., each H2 must be unique.


OLD: Update the text content of the 2 sibling heading elements of the same level to be unique


  • Need to fix "must should"
  • Definition uses concept of accessible name, whereas action addresses text content

15. TITLE must identify website and page

16. Change MARQUEE elements


NEW: Do not use MARQUEE element


OLD: MARQUEE elements must be removed to improve readability of content.

NEW: Do not use the MARQUEE element. Its use undermines the readability of content.

17. Replace B and I element elements


NEW: Replace B and I elements


OLD: W: Change the I or B element to a EM and STRONG element.

NEW: W: Use the STRONG element instead of B (bold) and the EM (emphasis) element instead of I (italics).