Version 10 (modified by nhoyt, 6 years ago) (diff)




Content must be within landmark

DEFINITION All rendered content must be contained within a landmark

ACTION Update the landmark structure of the page and place the 590 out of 591 elements currently outside of landmarks into their proper landmark container; Verify if the element contains renderable content. If it does contain renderable content change the landmark structure to make sure it is contained in a landmark

COMMENT Summary: Page structure must be defined by landmarks OR All content must have landmark roles

Definition: All [rendered] content must be placed inside of container elements with ARIA landmark roles.

Action: Update the landmark structure of the page by placing the 590 out of 591 elements not contained in landmarks into container elements with proper landmark roles.

Note: The second part of the action message alludes to a single element that is a manual check. But this is not obvious. Only by looking at the element results do you discover that there is a manual check.

Manual Check: Verify that if the element contains renderable content, it is a descendant of a container element with a landmark role.

Questions: (1) Why is this a manual check? (2) Why can't we automatically detect whether it's in a landmark?

PURPOSE Landmarks provide a way to organize content of a page to users of assistive technology, similar to visual and interaction designers organize information for people using a graphical rendering of the content.

COMMENT (2013-11-12) Landmarks provide a way to organize the content of a page for users of assistive technologies, analogous to the visual organization that consumers of a graphical rendering would experience.

First landmark heading H2

DEFINITION If a BANNER, CONTENTINFO, COMPLEMENTARY, FORM, NAVIGATION and SEARCH landmarks contain heading the first heading should be an h2 headings

ACTION No headings in landmarks; or no landmarks on the page

COMMENT Definition: If a BANNER, CONTENTINFO, COMPLEMENTARY, FORM, NAVIGATION or SEARCH landmark contains a heading element, the first heading should be an h2.

H1 should be in MAIN landmark

Headings must be descriptive

DEFINITION Heading elements must describe the sections they label

ACTION Verify the 35 heading elements describe the section following each heading element

COMMENT Action: Verify that each of the 35 heading elements describes the section that follows it. OR: Verify that each of the 35 heading elements describes its subsequent section.

Headings must have text content

Headings nested in landmarks

Identify language changes

No more than one BANNER landmark

DEFINITION Each page must contain no more than one BANNER landmark per page

ACTION Verify that the page has a website branding banner at the top of the page. If the page has a branding banner use the BANNER landmark to identify the content that is part of the banner

COMMENT Definition: Each page must contain no more than one BANNER landmark.

No more than one CONTENTINFO landmark

COMMENT Change wording, same as BANNER rule

Page must define language code

DEFINITION Page must define language code for primary text content


COMMENT Summary: Page must use language code Definition: Page must define the language of its principal content using a valid IANA language code.

Page must have MAIN landmark

DEFINITION Each page must contain at least one MAIN landmark

ACTION Verify the main landmark identifies the main content of the page

COMMENT This rule combines two tests: The DEFINITION implies that the test is for presence of MAIN landmark. The ACTION (a manual check) asks the user to verify whether the main content is encapsulated by a MAIN landmark, which is somewhat of a mismatch.

COMMENT (2013-11-12) ACTION (when MAIN landmark is missing) V: Page does NOT contain a MAIN landmark

[Convert to imperative statement: V: Add a MAIN landmark to the page.

Page must have NAVIGATION landmark

ACTION Add a NAVIGATION landmark(s) that identifies the group(s) of navigation links on a page

COMMENT Add one or more NAVIGATION landmarks that identify groups of navigation links.

Page should have H1 element

DEFINITION Each page should contain at least one H1 element and each H1 element must have content

COMMENT Definition: Each page should contain at least one H1 element, each of which must have content.

Sibling headings must be unique

DEFINITION Sibling heading elements accessible names must should be unique

ACTION Update the text content of the 2 sibling heading elements of the same level to be unique

COMMENT Definition: The accessible names of sibling heading elements must should be unique

  1. Need to fix "must should"
  2. Definition uses concept of accessible name, whereas action addresses text content

TITLE must identify website and page

Valid IANA language codes


Do not nest layout tables

Focus must be visible

Layout tables use ROLE="PRESENTATION"

Page must have meaningful sequence

DEFINITION Web pages with layout tables must provide content in a meaningful sequence

ACTION No layout tables found on this page

COMMENT Should rule only apply to pages with layout tables?

Text must exceed CCR of 4.5


Don't use filename

Image must have alternative

LONGDESC must be valid

Small/decorative images set to presentation

Text alternative length

Verify decorative image

Link should not be small

Link text must be consistent

Link text must be descriptive

Link text must be unique

Target focus must be in content window


CAPTION must be different from SUMMARY

Data table must have headers

Data tables must have caption

Data tables should have caption

Header cells should be TH elements


BUTTONs must have content

Controls must have labels

FIELDSET must have one legend

ID must be unique

Image button must have alt content

LABEL must have content

LABEL must reference control

Labels must be descriptive

DEFINITION Labels must be must describe the purpose of every button, textarea, select and input element of type text, password, radio, and checkbox on a page

COMMENT Wording needs to be fixed

Labels must be unique

Radio button must use FIELDSET/LEGEND

SELECT must not change context

SUBMIT and RESET buttons must be unique

TITLE may not be good label


ARIA attribute must be defined

ARIA values must be valid

Keyboard/Mouse?/drag events must have roles

ONCLICK must have role

Only one owner

ROLE must be valid

Value in range

Widget must have name

Widgets must have child roles

Widgets must have parent

Widgets must have properties


AUDIO must have alternative

EMBED for audio must have alternative

Live video must have caption

OBJECT for audio must have alternative

Prerecorded video must have caption

Prerecorded video must have description

Video must have audio description track

Video only must have alternative

Keyboard Support

Focus order must be meaningful

Keyboard operation

No keyboard trap

Tabindex for focus

Widgets must support keyboard

At least two ways of finding content

Ordering of H1 one H2 elements

Ordering of landmarks